License keys are the defacto-standard as an anti-piracy measure. To be honest, this strikes me as (in)Security Through Obscurity, although I really have no idea how license keys are generated. What is a good (secure) example of license key generation? What cryptographic primitive (if any) are they using? Is it a message digest? If so, what data would they be hashing? What methods do developers employ to make it difficult for crackers to build their own key generators? How are key generators made?
It is however very much security by obscurity. Anyone taking the time to disassemble the code would be able to find the graphing function and encryption keys, then mock up a key generator, but its probably quite useful for slowing down casual piracy.
A good software license key/serial number generator consists of more than just a string of random characters or a value from some curve generator. Using a limited alphanumeric alphabet, data can be embedded into a short string (e.g. XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX) that includes all kinds of useful information such as:
Probably the hardest part about creating a license key is figuring out how to cram as much data as possible into as few bytes as possible. Remember that users will be entering in their license keys by hand, so every bit counts and users don't want to type extremely long, complex strings in. 16 to 25 character license keys are the most common and balance how much data can be placed into a key vs. user tolerance for entering the key to unlock the software. Slicing up bytes into chunks of bits allows for more information to be included but does increase code complexity of both the generator and validator.
Writing a keygen is a matter of knowing what a license key consists of and then producing the same output that the original key generator produces. If the algorithm for license key verification is included in and used by the software, then it is just a matter of creating software that does the reverse of the verification process.
However, despite being broken up into steps, this falls prey to the same methods of cracking used for the normal process. The process used to create an activation key that is checked against the original CD key was quickly discovered, and generators that incorporate both of the keys were made.
List comprehensions are defined with square brackets . This is different from generator expressions, which are defined with parentheses (). They look similar but they are quite different. Let's see why.
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There are various topics in the world of RPM SPEC files that are consideredadvanced because they have implications on not only the SPEC file, how thepackage is built, but also on the end machine that the resulting RPM isinstalled upon. In this section we will cover the most common of these such asEpoch, Scriptlets, and Triggers.
printf("Hello, world!\n"); We invoke the function printf() to print the string "Hello, world!" followed by a newline (\n) to the console. The newline (\n) brings the cursor to the beginning of the next line. 2b1af7f3a8