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Your body may get too much iron (iron overload), either from frequent blood transfusions or the disease itself. Too much iron can cause damage to your heart, liver, and endocrine system. Your endocrine system includes glands that produce hormones that regulate processes throughout your body.
You may get frequent severe infections, especially if you receive a lot of blood transfusions. The infections may be carried in the blood you receive during a transfusion. Healthcare providers carefully screen donor blood during transfusions to prevent this from happening.
Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium transmitted by female Anopheles species mosquitoes. Our understanding of the malaria parasites begins in 1880 with the discovery of the parasites in the blood of malaria patients by Alphonse Laveran. The sexual stages in the blood were discovered by William MacCallum in birds infected with a related haematozoan, Haemoproteus columbae, in 1897 and the whole of the transmission cycle in culicine mosquitoes and birds infected with Plasmodium relictum was elucidated by Ronald Ross in 1897. In 1898 the Italian malariologists, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli, Angelo Celli, Camillo Golgi and Ettore Marchiafava demonstrated conclusively that human malaria was also transmitted by mosquitoes, in this case anophelines. The discovery that malaria parasites developed in the liver before entering the blood stream was made by Henry Shortt and Cyril Garnham in 1948 and the final stage in the life cycle, the presence of dormant stages in the liver, was conclusively demonstrated in 1982 by Wojciech Krotoski. This article traces the main events and stresses the importance of comparative studies in that, apart from the initial discovery of parasites in the blood, every subsequent discovery has been based on studies on non-human malaria parasites and related organisms.
Infection begins when (1) sporozoites, the infective stages, are injected by a mosquito and are carried around the body until they invade liver hepatocytes where (2) they undergo a phase of asexual multiplication (exoerythrocytic schizogony) resulting in the production of many uninucleate merozoites. These merozoites flood out into the blood and invade red blood cells where (3) they initiate a second phase of asexual multiplication (erythrocytic schizogony) resulting in the production of about 8-16 merozoites which invade new red blood cells. This process is repeated almost indefinitely and is responsible for the disease, malaria. As the infection progresses, some young merozoites develop into male and female gametocytes that circulate in the peripheral blood until they are (4) taken up by a female anopheline mosquito when it feeds. Within the mosquito (5) the gametocytes mature into male and female gametes, fertilization occurs and a motile zygote (ookinete) is formed within the lumen of the mosquito gut, the beginning of a process known as sporogony. The ookinete penetrates the gut wall and becomes a conspicuous oocyst within which another phase of multiplication occurs resulting in the formation of sporozoites that migrate to the salivary glands of a mosquito and are injected when the mosquito feeds on a new host.
Our understanding of the life cycle of the malaria parasites did not proceed in the logical order just outlined but more like a jigsaw in which the various pieces were painstakingly put into place and, like a jigsaw, often involved mistakes and false starts. The story begins with the discovery of the stages in the blood. Many textbooks merely state that 'in 1880 Laveran discovered the malaria parasite' words that do not give this discovery the credit it deserves. In order to understand the background of this discovery it is necessary to go back to the 1870s. The discoveries of Pasteur and Koch had precipitated a search for a bacterial cause for many diseases including malaria. By 1879 the miasma theory was going out of favour and the two theories vying for contention were whether the microorganisms responsible were transmitted (1) by air and inhalation or (2) by water and ingestion. The leading theory was that proposed by the Italian Corrado Tommasi-Crudeli and the German, Theodor Albrecht Edwin Klebs, an eminent microbiologist who had been the first person to see the bacteria responsible for typhoid and diphtheria. Tommasi-Crudeli and Klebs claimed that they had isolated from the waters of the Pontine Marshes, where malaria was prevalent, a bacterium, Bacillus malariae, which when isolated in culture and injected into rabbits caused febrile infections accompanied by enlarged spleens reminiscent of malaria . It was against this background that Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, an unknown French army officer working in Algeria, challenged the perceived wisdom and began in his own words 'to follow the pigment'. Beginning with the known fact that the spleens of malaria patients contained pigment he began to look for pigment in the fresh unstained blood of patients and observed it first in leucocytes and then in or on red blood cells. Looking more carefully, he observed several different forms of erythrocytic organism including crescents, spherical motionless bodies with pigment, spherical moving bodies with pigment and bodies that extruded flagella-like structures all of which he thought were on the outside of the red cells. These observations are particularly interesting because Laveran not only used fresh blood but also a dry objective with a maximum magnification of ×400 diameters. He also suggested a course of events that began with clear spots that grew, acquired pigment and filled the corpuscle which then burst coinciding with the fevers associated with malaria. Laveran meticulously examined the blood of 200 patients and in 148 observed the crescentic bodies in all cases of malaria but never in those without malaria. He also noted that quinine removed these stages from the blood. Laveran quickly realised that he had found a parasitic protozoan which he called Oscillaria malariae. He presented his findings to the French Academy of Medical Sciences in December 1880  but failed to persuade any of the eminent microbiologists, zoologists or malariologists of the day that he was seeing anything other than disintegrating red blood cells. Nevertheless he persevered and by 1884 had convinced the leading Italian malariologists including Bignami, Golgi and Marchiafava that malaria was caused by a protozoan and not a bacterium . His biggest triumph came in the same year when he also convinced the more cynical microbiologists Louis Pasteur, Charles Edouard Chamberland and Pierre Paul Émile Roux. Robert Koch, one of the most influential microbiologists of his time, however, remained sceptical until 1887. Nevertheless in some quarters the miasma theory persisted and as late as 1895 the American R. C. Newton, a supporter of Tommasi-Crudeli, wrote that 'Aerial and aquatic transportation of malaria has been proved' . (This paper is worth reading in full because, although based on what we now know to be false premises, it contains a mass of interesting information about the prevention of malaria such as the use of screens or mosquito nets to exclude insects, closing doors at night and lighting fires out of doors). Laveran was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1907 and his discoveries are described in some detail by the Sergent brothers  and Bruce-Chwatt  as well as in the various histories of malaria listed above.
What was remarkable about Laveran's discovery was that it was without precedent as no protozoan had previously been found inhabiting any kind of human blood cell. Unbeknown to Laveran or the Italian malariologists, however, the Russian physiologist, Vassily Danilewsky had been examining the blood of birds and reptiles in the Ukraine and had discovered a number of parasites including trypanosomes and others that he identified as 'pseudovacules'. Anyone who has studied blood parasites will immediately recognise his description of 'pseudovacuoles' as unstained malaria parasites. By 1885 Danilewsky had recognised the three most common genera of intraerythrocytic blood parasites of birds now known as Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon but, as he had published much of his work in Russian, it was not until his three volume book La Parasitologie Comparée du Sang had been published in French in 1889 that this information became widely available . Thereafter there began searches for other malaria parasites in reptiles, birds and mammals and this was facilitated by the accidental discovery of a methylene blue-eosin stain by Dimitri Leonidovitch Romanowsky in 1891 . Romanowsky's stains became popular at the beginning of the twentieth century and remain the basis of blood stains such as Leishman's, Giemsa's and Wright's to the present day. These stains colour the nucleus of the parasite red and the cytoplasm blue permitting their easy identification and are used not only for malaria parasites but also for trypanosomes, leishmanias and filarial worms. Romanowsky's discovery is one of the most significant technical advances in the history of parasitology.
Meanwhile the Italian workers, now convinced that malaria was caused by a parasite, took up the challenge with vigour and Marchiafava and Bignami, using a combination of eosin-based blood stains and the oil-immersion microscope objective developed by the Carl Zeiss Company in 1882-4, observed amoeboid movement of the organism. This left them in no doubt that they were dealing with a protozoan parasite that invaded red blood cells, grew within the cells and produced daughter cells that invaded fresh blood cells . Thereafter the Italian views dominated malaria research and, based on observations of the erythrocytic stages of the parasite, Golgi between 1885-6 differentiated between tertian (48 hour periodicity) and quartan (72 hour periodicity) malaria  and in 1889-1890 Golgi and Marchiafava further described the differences between mild Spring malaria (benign tertian) and severe Summer-Autumn (malignant tertian) malaria . 2b1af7f3a8